According to Muslim historians and others the nowadays known Kaaba/Cube الكعبة wasn't unique, and so apparently there have been many Kaabas around in the Arabic Peninsula, but the one in Mecca according the Wikipedia article was the only one made of Stone.
Muslim sources say that this was the original Kaaba while the others were copies made by tribes who wanted to have a similar "sacred building", yet none of them had or reached the importance and significance of the original one. They even add that the Abyssinian Negus/rulers, when conquering the Yemen and parts of the Peninsula, tried to establish a concurrent sanctuary (a church if I remember well), but failed and therefore tried to demolish the (Meccan) Kaaba.
My question is, when did the last of the other Kaabas disappear and how?
Not sure if this is what you're wondering about, but from Will Durant's The Age of Faith (1950), page 161:
In the belief of orthodox Moslems, the Kaaba was built or rebuilt ten times. The first was erected at the dawn of history by angels from heaven; the second by Adam; the third by his son Seth; the fourth by Abraham and his son Ishmael by Hagar...the seventh by Qusay, chief of the Quraish tribe; the eighth by the Quraish leaders in Mohammed's lifetime (605); the ninth and tenth by Moslem leaders in 681 and 696; the tenth is substantially the Kaaba of today.