virology's questions - English 1answer

342 virology questions.

In the example of a retrovirus, after the lipid bilayer fuses with the membrane of the cell, the capsid dissolves releasing the viral content. What is the mechanism behind the capsid dissolving? I ...

Is it more beneficial to use a lower wavelength UV-C bulb? For example, using a 180 nm UV-C bulb instead of 254 nm. I know the 180 nm bulb will produce ozone, which is very useful for filtration of ...

It is known that viruses contain DNA or RNA- either one and not both. I came across a question: Which virus contains both DNA and RNA?

I was informed by my teacher that this retrovirus changes its RNA, so there is not a drug which can recognize the RNA and somehow inactivates it. Are there any other reasons explaining why there isn't ...

I am naïve to subject of biology. But viruses always intrigues me. I have seen few documentaries, but I am still unsatisfied. I have come to known that viruses have following properties which they ...

Cell penetrating peptides. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short amino acid sequences which are sufficient for crossing cell membranes and delivering themselves along with any ...

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...

Is any means by which smallpox would lead to genocide of the native Americans?

Both are characterized, their genes are usually described and published, they are kept safe, they could be used as inoculum or to produce vaccine... Would it be correct to say a strain would be ...

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.

Typically, people call viruses some kind of organic compounds that cannot reproduce autonomously and which lower the fitness of their hosts. Even the word "virus" means "venom" in Latin. But from the ...

I am looking at the genome of the influenza virus being used in the flu vaccine 2017-2018: A/Michigan/45/2015. When I look below at the individual segments, there are 4 sequences for each segment - ...

Can you use indirect immounofluoresence to verify if a vaccine will work against a virus? Using the vaccine antibodies against the virus, plus a second antibody with fluorophore that will join the ...

What is the difference between a virus and virion. Correct me if i am wrong but i think that one can simply say that " virus outside a cell is called a virion" and that this stage is used to go from ...

Since even nonprocreative sex transfers genetic material it seems redundant for viruses to destroy the host. Retroviruses are sufficiently simple to fit into DNA. So why not just become DNA viruses?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...

Conjunctivitis or 'pink eye'. I have a few questions on conjunctivitis. When I was suffering from conjunctivitis, my doctor advised me to wear sunglasses so that no one else gets infected. I wonder ...

In articles, such as this, the biology of the HIV infection is explained. However, i haven't been able to find any research explaining how long the virus takes to penetrate the cell layer. The article ...

According to CDC, non-bite exposure includes scratches, abrasion, and contamination of the mucous membrane from a rabid animal's saliva. So, is it possible to catch rabies if a rapid animal barks ...

Is Hemadsorption Innhibition enough to identify all enveloped virus? Or are there cases in which Hemadsorption innhibition will not work?

Is it possible to take purified a virus particle and dissociate it into a mixture of its constituent proteins (and nucleic acids)? I am wondering if it would be possible to disassemble the particle ...

As I stumbled through this question: A 16-year-old female patient presented to her family physician with a complaint of an abnormal vaginal discharge and pruritus (itching). The patient ...

I am just a beginner of BIOLOGY as a Grade 7 student! But the information which I got from my textbook and Internet has got me confused as MY TEXTBOOK SAID:- Viruses are part of "Akaryote" And '...

I wanted to know what the difference between the operator mutant and repressor mutant lambda bacteriophages is and how do they act on E. coli cells.

I am currently confused about the estimation of multiplicity of infection (MOI), here is an example in a scientific article in figure 3b, they tested the virus, and get estimated MOI based on this: ...

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...

Generally, viruses are infectious in nature and there are several cancer-causing viruses that are known (i.e. oncovirus) My question is: Are these oncoviruses infectious in nature? If so, what is the ...

I'm sorry if this is a stupid question, I'm just starting my first year of a biomedicine degree and I'm curious - googling didn't find me any answers. I know that the Aboriginal Australians and many ...

Pre-exposure prophylactic treatment (PrEP) for HIV is commonly said to reduce infection rates by more than 75%. Similar treatments for already-infected patient treatments do not cure HIV, but reduce ...

A virus can either participate in a lysogenic cycle or a lytic cycle. What decides that?

Shapes of Viruses

0 answers, 71 views virology
My textbook says that the Influenza Virus has helical structure. In the above image, 1) The RNA is helical. But according to many sources, the capsid determines the overall shape of the virus. So, ...

There's an exception to the rule that all DNA viruses need to get to the nucleus in order to replicate. Poxviruses do not require to get into the nucleus because they can make protein from their very ...

I'm not sure if it's just a movies thing but I always notice that the original strain of a virus is required to cure a virus, why is this? is this even true?

Other than smallpox, I'm curious to know if there are any other stockpiles of eradicated or nearly eradicated viruses, and if so where are they located? Thank you.

Could a person's immune system be built eventually to be able to inject all the known strains with in to stay immune?

I would think the latter since they are so simple and are parasitic but even proteins break down over time .. only found a few answers on the net and it was over a decade ago but nothing in any papers ...

There are number of virus which have animal as reservior and jump to human to cause disease. Why dont we use antibodies of animal to cure humans? Like rabies in bats.

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...

I have read on a few websites that there can be competition between the viruses in a host for replication, nutrition etc. Do viruses fight against each other, i.e. are there viruses that infect or ...

We have all heard the typical “Put a jacket on youre going to catch a cold.” Usually stated by an older person typically a grandmother. Excuse the stereotype. Is there any evidence that colder weather ...

In a TV series I've been watching The Last Ship, - spoiler alert - a scientist develops a cure for himself for a virus, but actually continues to remain a carrier, and sort of weaponizes the virus ...

I've been looking at the effectiveness of Flu vaccines, which are in my subjective opinion abysmal, and the concept of herd immunity. I see many articles which argue that we all need flu shots to ...

I know it is an unconventional way to describe viruses, but would it still be technically correct?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.

There is a biology project I must do with some of my classmates and we're facing a problem. We would like to choose proteins from different viruses that seem interesting to us (for example one protein ...

How can I perform a Virus Microneutralization assay for influenza virus using serum from mice vaccinated with this virus?

Ozonation is often promoted as one of the most effective disinfection procedures. There are numerous reports on how ozone effectively kills bacteria and molds, and disarms viruses within seconds due ...

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