**13 derivations questions.**

Some authors have written that derivation of an algebra is an important tools for studying its structure. Could you give me a specific example of how a derivation gives insight into an algebra's ...

Is there any closed form formula (or some procedure) to find all $n$-th partial derivatives of a spherical harmonic?

Let $k$ be a field of characteristic zero and $A$ be a $k$-algebra. A derivation on $A$ is a $k$-linear map $D: A \to A$ such that $D(ab)=aD(b)+bD(a), \forall a,b \in A$. A derivation is called ...

Suppose that $L$ is a finite Galois extension of the field $K$.
If $L_1$ and $L_2$ are subfields of $L$ containing $K$ then $L_1\cap L_2=L^H$
where $H$ is the group generated by ${\rm Aut}_{L_1}(L)$ ...

Let $A$ be an integral domain which is a finitely generated algebra over an algebraically closed field $k$. Let $\phi :A \to A^{[1]}$ be a $k$-algebra homomorphism and let us write $\phi_t : A \to A[...

I would like to prove a real $C^{\infty}$(polynomial) multivariable function $F : (a_1,a_2,...a_n) \rightarrow (b_1,b_2,...b_n) $ is lipchitz of parameter $l$
is it sufficient to prove the norm of ...

I have a defined utility function as Eq.(1), and I am seeking the minimized utility subjects to some constraints. The notation used is as following:
\linebreak
$V$ is the set of nodes, $v_i\in V$; $O$...

My understanding of how derivations on commutative rings are like derivatives is that a derivation on $R$ is differentiation with respect to a vector field on $\text{Spec}(R)$. But derivations are ...

Let $L$ be a Lie algebra over a field of characteristic $p>0$ and $D$ a derivation of $L$. For every $x\in L$ denote by $\mathrm{ad} x$ the adjoint map $\mathrm{ad}x: L \rightarrow L, a\mapsto [x,...

Let $L$ be a perfect Lie algebra. Then it is well-known that $L$ has a universal central extension $\hat{L}$ and every derivation of $L$ can be lifted to a derivation of $\hat{L}$. (See e.g. Section 2 ...

Let $L$ be a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over a field of characteristic zero. It is not difficult to see (and also follows from Theorem 4.4 of [G. Hochschild: Semi-simple algebras and generalized ...

Consider the ring $\mathbb{C}[[X,Y]]$ and its subring $\mathbb{C}[[X+iY]]$, where $i=\sqrt{-1}$. One can show that $f(X,Y):=u(X,Y)+iv(X,Y)\in \mathbb{C}[[X,Y]]$ lies in $\mathbb{C}[[X+iY]]$ iff $u$ ...

The final result I draw is related to the integral of modified Bessel function of the second kind. But I can not solve it, and I need a explicit solution Are you willing to help me? Thank all
$I = \...

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