**5.222 fa.functional-analysis questions.**

It is well know that the Haar probability measure for the $U(N)$ group, given by
$$
\begin{align}
dX_{U(N)} & = \frac{1}{N!(2\pi)^N}
\begin{vmatrix}
1 & 1 ...

Let $\Omega$ be some measurable space. Suppose $\{x_n\}$ is a sequence bounded in $L^{\infty}((0,T) ; L^2(\Omega;H^1(\mathbb{R}^d)))$ , then we know there exists a subsequence $\{x_n\}$(denoting same) ...

I'm looking for a reference for the following fact: In the torus $\mathbb T^d$ let me denote by $u_t=u(t,x)$ the (unique, distributional) solution of the heat equation
$$
\partial_t u=\Delta u
$$
...

On the paper: Decay of Solutions to Nonlinear Schrodinger
Equations.
Let $u$ be a solution of the equation
$$Hu+|u|^2u=0,$$
where $H$ is a Schrodinger operator, i.e. $-\Delta+V$($V$ is a (smooth)...

I'm having bit trouble in understanding weak convergences in Bochner space. I have following two questions for some general measurable space $\Omega$:
a) Let $\{x_n\}$ be a bounded sequence in $L^2((...

I'm looking for a direct proof of the Closed Graph Theorem (or Bounded Inverse Theorem) from the Uniform Boundedness Principle. But I can't find one in the literature.
I'm hoping there's a nice ...

I am reading through the following statement and proof in Aupetit’s A Primer on Spectral Theory
He provides the following proof:
Towards the end of the proof, Aupetit says that the set $E$ as ...

Let $\sigma:\mathbb{R}^n\times \mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ be a bilinear symmetric form which is non-degenerate in the sense that for every $0\neq u\in \mathbb{R}^n$ there is $v\in \mathbb{R}^n$ with $...

It is not too hard to show the following.
Suppose that $\mathcal{F}$ is a non-principal filter on $\mathbb N$. Denote by $c_0^{\mathcal{F}}$ the subspace of $\ell_\infty$ consisting of sequences that ...

I asked this question on Math StackExchange, but it did not receive an answer, despite my offering a bounty to attract attention. I am unsure whether it is appropriate for this venue, but I thought ...

I see the following theorem in Lihe Wang's A geometric approach to the Calderon--Zygmund estimates
(Modified Vitali) Let $0<\varepsilon<1$ and let $C\subset D\subset B_1$ be two measurable ...

Suppose a group $\Gamma$ acts by isometries on the Hilbert space $\mathbb{H}^\infty$ and it fixes the origin. So $\Gamma$ acts on the unit sphere $\mathbb{S}^\infty$ as well.
Assume that the action $...

Let $\mathcal{H}$ be a Hilbert space, let $p\ge 2$, and consider a bounded linear operator
$
T\colon \mathcal{H}\to L^p(\mathbb R^d). $
Is the set $M=\{f\in \mathcal H\ :\ \|Tf\|_{L^p}= \|T\|\|f\|...

Let $C(X)$:space of continuous functions on a compact space.Topology $C(X)$ is generated by sup-norm($||T||=sup_{v}\frac{||T(v)||}{||v||}$).
Consider $f$ and $g :C(X)\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ are upper ...

Let $G$ and $\mathbb C[G]$ be a torsion free group and its group algebra. Is there a function $f:\mathbb N\rightarrow\mathbb R$, with $\lim_nf(n)=\infty$ such that if $0\neq\alpha,\beta\in\mathbb C[G]$...

While analyzing convergence speed of stochastic-gradient methods for convex optimization problems, Recht et al (2011) posed a tantalizing conjecture. It seems quite tricky, so after having struggled a ...

Let $M$ be a compact Riemannian manifold without boundary, $X$ a smooth vector field on $M$. Consider the Brownian motion $t\mapsto B_t$ on $M$ with drift $X$, so that its generator is $L=\Delta +X$. ...

Let $X$ be a Banach space, $T(t)$ be a strongly continuous semigroup on $X$, and $f\in L^1(0,\tau;X)$. It has been implied that the integral $$v(t)=\int_0^t T(t-s)f(s)ds,\quad t\in [0,\tau]$$
is not ...

Let $\mathcal{E}(\mathbb{R})$ be the space of all $C^\infty$ functions on $\mathbb{R}$ with its usual topology, and $\mathcal{E}'(\mathbb{R})$ be the dual space with the weak* topology.
Let $(T_i)_{...

Let $M$ be a complete Riemannian manifold. Denote $\Delta_M\ge0$ the unique self-adjoint extension of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in $L^2(M)$ and $\sigma(\Delta_M)\subset [0,\infty)$ its spectrum. ...

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...

Let $\mathcal{E}'(\mathbb{R})$ be the space of all compactly supported distributions on $\mathbb{R}$.
For $f\in \mathcal{E}'(\mathbb{R})$, let $\widehat{f}$ denote the entire extension of the ...

I am looking for the following statement.
Let $X$ be a topological space and let $\mu$, $\nu$ be Radon-Borel measures in the same measure class i.e. the the zero-sets are identical. Denote then by $...

For a Tychonoff space $X$ let $C_k(X)$ denote the space of continuous real-valued functions on $X$, endowed with the compact-open topology.
Problem. Is the space $C_k(X)$ Polish if it is Polishable ...

For a normal operator $T$ on a Hilbert space ${\cal H}$, it is well known that for any continuous complex valued function $f$ on the spectrum of $T$, we have a well-defined operator $f(T) \in B({\cal ...

Theorem 1 of this paper shows that
For every positve integer $K$ and for every nonempty bounded domain $\mathcal X \subseteq \mathbb R^d$, the restriction on $\mathcal X$ of any function $h: \...

I was wondering when the following argument is valid:
Consider a nonlinear Schrödinger equation
$$i \partial_t \varphi = -\Delta \varphi+ N(\varphi)$$
where $N$ is a nonlinearity.
Often it is ...

I am reading the paper https://arxiv.org/pdf/0905.1257.pdf. Lemma 2.4. Equation (2.9) states that;
When $n=1$, for any $U \in H^{1}_{0, L} (\mathcal C);$ its trace $U(x, 0)$ is continuous embedded in ...

Let $x,y$ be vectors of some Hilbert space of unit length.
Then we can consider the projection $P_x:=\langle \bullet, x \rangle x$ and similarly $P_y.$
Assume then that we know that $\left\lVert x-...

I am trying to understand the completed tensorproduct. This can be defined as follows:
Given a topological ring $R$ and two linearly topologized rings $A$ and $B$ with fundamental systems of open ...

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...

Let $B\subset\mathbb{R}^d$ be the Euclidean $d$-dimensional unit ball.
It is well-known that for any $x_1,\ldots,x_n\in B$, we have the following upper bound on the Rademacher complexity
$$ R_n := \...

Let $X$ be a separable Frechet space (= Polish locally convex linear metric space) and $X'_c$ be the space of linear continuous functionals on $X$, endowed with the compact-open topology (= the ...

Let $\Gamma$ be a smooth hypersurface in $\mathbb{R}^n$. We can define the fractional Sobolev space
$$X = \{ u \in L^2(\Gamma) \mid |u|_X^2 := \int_\Gamma \int_\Gamma \frac{|u(x)-u(y)|^2}{|x-y|^{n+1}} ...

I am interested in sufficient criteria which ensure that a subset $X$ of a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$ is a Lipschitz (or at least uniformly continuous) retract of $\mathcal{H}$.
Under which ...

Every $f\colon\{-1,1\}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ can be repsenented as a multilinean polynomial of the form $$f(x_1,x_2,\ldots ,x_n)=\sum _{S\subseteq [n]} \hat{f}(S)\prod_{i\in S} x_i $$ The degree of the ...

Could someone provides some references for the chain rule concerning Dini derivatives. For example, let $f(\cdot) \in \mathcal{C}^1\left( \mathbb{R} ; \mathbb{R}\right)$, and $g(\cdot) \in \mathcal{C}\...

I would like to ask the following problem.
Let $\Omega$ be a $C^{r+1,\alpha}$ domain, $r\in \mathbb{N}, 0<\alpha<1.$ We denote $$C^{r,\alpha}_{0}(\overline{\Omega})=\{f\in C^{r,\alpha}(\...

Let M:=$S^{1}\times \mathcal{D}^1$ where $\mathcal{D}=\{v\in \mathcal{R}^2 | |v|<1\}$ carries the product distance and suppose $f:M\rightarrow M$,$(x,y,z)\rightarrow (\gamma x, \lambda y+v(x), \mu ...

Let $\Omega$ be a bounded, connected set in $\mathbb{R}^2$ with smooth boundary. I am wondering under what conditions on the real function $f(x):\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ the superposition operator $F(...

Carleman linearization is a technique used to embed a finite dimensional system of analytic ordinary differential equations into an infinite system of linear differential equations:¹⁻²
Let $f$ be ...

We're stuck on the following question in a problem relevant to a physics paper on AdS/CFT that we are working on. Given a Fredholm equation of second kind with the form $f$+$\int_D K f\,dx = 0$, where ...

Pommeville-Manneau maps:
$ T_{\alpha}=x+2^{\alpha}x^{\alpha+1} x \in [0,\frac{1}{2}], 2x-1, x \in [\frac{1}{2}, 1], \alpha <1$
is well known to have polynomial decay of correlation, it transfer ...

It seems that the following claim is true, but I did not manage to prove it neither to find a reference.
Claim Let $f:\mathbb R^p\to\mathbb R$ be a three times differentiable function such that its ...

Let $F_1, F_2$ be two divergence-free vector fields on a simply connected region $\Omega \subset R^3$, and suppose
$|| F_2-F_1 ||_{L^2(\Omega)} \leq c|| |F_2| -|F_1| ||_{L^{\infty}(\Omega)}$, for ...

I've recently come across many results discussing the differentiation of the Moreau envelope defined by
$$
e(f)(x)\triangleq \min_{h \in H} \|h-x\|^2 + f(z)
,
$$
where $f$ is a convex functional on a ...

This question came up when my supervisors, my colleague, and I were considering arithmetic progressions in sets of fractional dimension. In particular, we were interested in "extracting" Salem sets ...

Suppose $f$ and $g$ are bounded functions, having whatever niceness properties you want, on some space of finite measure. Assume they are normalized so that $\int |f|^2=\int|g|^2=1$. I am looking for ...

Let $\tau$ and $\ell$ be positive numbers. We know that the space $H^2(0,\ell)\cap H^1_0(0,\ell)$ is compactly embedded into $L^6(0,\ell)$. Now, is the space $L^2(0,\tau;H^2(0,\ell)\cap H^1_0(0,\ell))$...

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