# factor-rotation's questions - English 1answer

62 factor-rotation questions.

### Pearson correlation after principal component analysis and varimax rotation

Is it possible (or does it make sense) to check for correlation after varimax rotation, since varimax assumes that there aren't any correlation between factors (or components)?

### PCA with oblimin rotation: should I interpret component matrix, pattern matrix or structure matrix?

1 answers, 974 views pca spss cronbachs-alpha factor-rotation
I conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) with direct oblimin factor rotation in SPSS. Because by that time I didn't know any better, I used the COMPONENT MATRIX for interpretation. I added ...

I'm doing uniqueness on factor loading matrix in a factor model. $y = \Lambda f + \epsilon$ where $f \sim N(0,\Sigma)$ , $\epsilon \sim N(0,\Omega)$ and $\epsilon \perp f$. It's well known that ...

0 answers, 26 views pca factor-analysis factor-rotation
My PCA with prcomp in R results in very low "loadings" (i.e. eigenvectors, see figure below). I've tried a rotation with ...

### 1 How to assess similarity of two sets of Principal Component Analysis loadings

A predictive model that I currently use relies on PCA with varimax rotation to reduce the dimensionality of the data (whether this is appropriate is a separate question). The dataset consists of ...

### 1 How to obtain the same varimax-rotated PCA results in MATLAB and SPSS?

1 answers, 1.217 views pca spss matlab factor-analysis factor-rotation
I'm trying to perform a PCA Extraction + Varimax Rotation in MATLAB and obtain the same results as in SPSS. My data is the following matrix A: ...

### 3 How to use principal components as predictors in regression?

I have a couple of questions involving doing a regression (logistic or linear) after principal component analysis. If I find principal components using Principal component analysis, can I use these ...

### 2 What does “varimax” mean in factor analysis?

1 answers, 8.134 views pca spss factor-analysis factor-rotation
In the rotation options of SPSS Factor Analysis, there is a rotation method named "Varimax". If I choose this option, does it mean the orthogonal rotation technique of Principal Component Analysis ...

I wonder if there is a method that allows finding factor loadings so that the factor would predict the distal outcome the best? The ordinary SEM model would estimate factor loadings and regression ...

### 1 Using weighted or unweighted wPCA scores in Logistic regression model-SAS

Im working on data that I should weight the data using a weight variable that I have and I want to evaluate the association of dietary pattern and obesity. So first I run Proc factor and use the "...

### 1 Computing factor scores for factors when the PAF is based on tetrachoric correlations

I want to create factors from various binary items. Using the polycor package (Fox, 2006) and R-Essentials I created a tetrachoric correlation matrix in SPSS. The items are all exploratory, so I ...

### 3 What is the difference between PCA and PAF method in factor analysis?

2 answers, 7.538 views pca factor-analysis factor-rotation
What is the difference between principal component analyses (PCA) and principal axis factoring (PAF)? Also, I understand the difference between varimax and oblimin rotations, but is that the same as ...

### 1 Creating scree plot before or after varimax rotation

0 answers, 93 views r pca psychology factor-rotation
I am performing a principal components analysis using the psych package in R. I have the results for a PCA with varimax rotation, but I can only figure out how to make a scree plot for the PCA without ...

### 56 Is PCA followed by a rotation (such as varimax) still PCA?

8 answers, 29.425 views r spss pca factor-analysis factor-rotation
I have tried to reproduce some research (using PCA) from SPSS in R. In my experience, principal() function from package psych ...

### 1 Calculating variance explained by factors after exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation in R

1 answers, 884 views r factor-analysis factor-rotation
We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using the psych package with oblique rotation and found an acceptable solution with 3 factors. Now a reviewer ask me to provide the proportion of variance ...

### Is there rotational ambiguity in PLS?

There are linearly overlapped components typically in curve resolution or factor analysis techniques [1] [2]. Also for PCA, it is common that it is easy to change the sign of the loadings or scores ...

### 1 Reproducing SAS Factor Analysis in R

0 answers, 30 views r factor-analysis sas factor-rotation
I need to be able to reproduce some SAS results in R, as far as this is possible (note: I'm very familiar with R and barely used SAS). The original SAS code is as follows: ...

### 1 Interpretation of negative factor correlations?

How would you interpret negative correlations between factors in factor analysis, and should they ever be negative? I did FA with oblique rotation (Oblimin) on 30 variables which were intended to ...

### PCA: Should I work with rotated score or originals score?

0 answers, 40 views r pca interpretation factor-rotation
I am currently trying to find the meaning of principal components of my data. I find the raw loading very hard to interpret, because the first components drags a large part of the total variance (50 %)...

### 1 Inconsistent varimax rotated scores from robust PCA output

0 answers, 32 views r pca robust factor-rotation
This great answer shows how to compute varimax-rotated loadings and scores from PCA results using princomp. I am conducting a robust PCA analysis using the pcaHubert function from the rrcov package. ...

### 1 Oblique vs. Orthogonal Rotation for EFA

Will orthogonal relationships show up when using Oblique rotation? Based on the articles I have read on EFA rotation my understanding is that although oblique rotation procedures might be expected ...

### 1 How to implement an alternative rotation in a factor analysis?

0 answers, 27 views factor-analysis factor-rotation
I have an application of factor analysis, where the theoretical model specifies that certain loadings within each factor should ideally share a same sign for the sake of interpretability. For example,...

### Problems running PCA with varimax rotation in R: the result does not match SPSS [duplicate]

0 answers, 50 views r pca spss factor-rotation
I am having some issues running PCA with varimax rotation in R. My data is from an 18 item questionnaire with a 5-1 likert scale with 1893 entries/rows. All missing values are imputed using the ...

### 2 Calculating Absolute Principal Component Scores from varimax-rotated principal components scores

In many receptor-modeling studies, after performing the PCA analysis, they often "rescale" their varimax-rotated PC scores (which are standardized with mean zero and standard deviaiton of 1) to ...

### 2 2D rotation of standardized PCA, how to compute new eigen values, eigen vectors, and loadings ?

I want to apply a 2D rotation of a $\theta$ angle to my two first principal components of a PCA. What I understood from this post is that I have to apply a rotation matrix R :  R_\theta = \left( \...

### How to do a factor analysis with just one component?

I have done a questionnaire with six questions to measure engagement. This is the only component I measure. To make sure they measure just one component, I tried to run a Factor analysis with Direct ...

### 1 What are the differences between (varimax and promax) rotations in PCA? [duplicate]

What are the differences between varimax and promax rotations in PCA?

### Principal component analysis when original variables hardly correlate

0 answers, 40 views pca factor-rotation
I am fairly familiar with the practical application of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA tries to find the first PC, for example, by minimization of the sum of squared perpendicular distances of ...

### 12 How to compute varimax-rotated principal components in R?

2 answers, 26.764 views r pca factor-rotation
I ran PCA on 25 variables and selected the top 7 PCs using prcomp. prc <- prcomp(pollutions, center=T, scale=T, retx=T)I ...

### 5 What's the relationship between initial eigenvalues and sums of squared loadings in factor analysis?

On the one hand I read in a comment here that: You can't speak of "eigenvalues" after rotation, even orthogonal rotation. Perhaps you mean sum of squared loadings for a principal component, ...

### 2 PCA rotation and principal component scores [duplicate]

0 answers, 69 views pca factor-rotation
This is my first post so apologies for any incorrect formatting or whether this has been answered elsewhere but I seem to be going around in circles. Basically, I have 12 survey plots and have ...

### Is my data eligible for PCA?

I have a data set in which each subject answered a subset of questions in response to visual stimuli (picture rating). At the beginning of the experiment, every subject got assigned 2 out of 16 ...

### PCA on a Likert scale data

1 answers, 707 views pca factor-analysis likert factor-rotation
I am trying to conduct a small experiment based on Likert style data. I have a total of 20 questions, 10 are referring to a latent construct of happiness, and the other 10 to a latent construct of ...

### 2 Factor Analysis - Rotation failed to converge in 25 iterations!

0 answers, 1.465 views pca spss factor-analysis factor-rotation
I am conducting a Factor Analysis using PCA. I have used Oblique and Orthagonal Rotations and when I am trying to analyse my results I get the message: "Rotation failed to converge in 25 iterations" ...

### 7 In Factor Analysis (or in PCA), what does it mean a factor loading greater than 1?

2 answers, 5.531 views pca factor-analysis factor-rotation
I've just run a FA using a oblique rotation (promax) and an item yielded a factor loading of 1.041 on one factor, (and factor loadings of -.131, -.119 and .065 on the other factors using pattern ...

### 1 Explained variance of principal components analysis followed by varimax rotation (in R)

0 answers, 167 views r pca factor-rotation
Using the pcaMethods package in R I have run PCA on a data set of ~500 subjects with ~300 variables each. There are some missing values so I am employing the ...

### 1 How does oblimin rotation method affect confirmatory factor analysis in lavaan?

I am conducting a CFA on a questionnaire with 4 factors. I know that the exploratory factor analysis to obtain theses 4 factors was done using oblimin rotation. I am now wondering, if this affects the ...

I have just read about the usual mistake in Principal Components Analysis of confusing between principal directions and component loadings following the explanation and links here: Relationship ...

### 1 Minimize shared variance of columns between factors in Correspondence Analysis

I am using correspondence analysis (CA) to analyze a contingency table. In the columns I have statements about some brands (characteristics) and in the rows I have the brands. My aim is to obtain in ...

### 22 What is the intuitive reason behind doing rotations in Factor Analysis/PCA & how to select appropriate rotation?

My Questions What is the intuitive reason behind doing rotations of factors in factor analysis (or components in PCA)? My understanding is, if variables are almost equally loaded in the top ...

### 10 Factor rotation methods (varimax, oblimin, etc.) - what do the names mean and what do the methods do?

Factor analysis has several rotation methods, such as varimax, quartimax, equamax, promax, oblimin, etc. I am unable to find any information that relates their names to their actual mathematical or ...

### 4 How is the proof that the Quartimax/Varimax-rotation converges?

Empirically the quartimax-/varimax-rotation has proven useful and it was always converging in my applications. But from my readings years ago (most prominent S.Mulaik and K.Ãœberla monographies on ...

### 3 The number of free parameters in factor analysis after an orthogonal rotation

0 answers, 179 views factor-analysis factor-rotation
Background I'm reading some notes in multivariate data analysis, in particular factor analysis. A data vector $X_{p\times 1}$, with $E(X) = \mu$ A vector $F_{m \times 1}$ of factors, A matrix \$L_{...

### 10 Is there a reason to leave an exploratory factor analysis solution unrotated?

2 answers, 1.865 views factor-analysis factor-rotation
Are there any reasons to not rotate an exploratory factor analysis solution? It's easy to find discussions comparing orthogonal solutions with oblique solutions, and I think I completely understand ...

### 7 Using varimax-rotated PCA components as predictors in linear regression

1 answers, 3.112 views regression pca factor-rotation
After doing PCA, the first component describes the largest part of variability. This is important e.g. in study of body measurements where it is commonly known (Jolliffe, 2002) that PC1 axis captures ...

### PCA and varimax on linear dependent variables

I am currently trying to use a PCA in combination with a varimax rotation on some measurements to extract underlying factors. However, some of the variables are related, in the sense that they ...

### 3 Why does varimax applied to PCA outcome fail to do anything at all?

1 answers, 252 views r pca factor-rotation
I am trying to perform PCA with varimax rotation on a set of data with 2 variables, in order to orthogonalise them (not for dimension reduction). I used prcomp() to ...

### 2 How to use varimax rotated PCA to produce raster layers?

0 answers, 160 views pca rotation factor-rotation
I have a raster stack of 19 layers called "raster_bio". The code to do PCA analysis is: ...

### 3 Can I rotate a (classical) MDS result with varimax etc.?

I have a matrix of (scaled) co-occurence counts which I would like to summarise using (classical, i.e. PCA-related) Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and then rotate (with ...

### 1 Exploratory factor analysis using oblique and bifactor rotation : different pattern loadings

0 answers, 133 views factor-analysis factor-rotation
When I try to compare oblique rotated factor analysis (promax, ML) with bifactor rotated analysis (ML), I get different pattern loadings. I don't know which solution should be retained; I am planning ...